REICE 2014 - Volume 12, No 4, special issue
Evaluating change processes.
Assessing extent of implementation (constructs, methods and implications)

Purpose: In far too many cases the initiatives to change schools by introducing new programs, processes and reforms has not resulted in obtainment of the desired outcomes. A major reason for limited outcomes suggested in this paper is that there has been a failure to learn from and apply constructs and measures related to understanding, facilitating and measuring dimensions of change processes. The aim of this paper is to introduce the three diagnostic dimensions of the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) along with illustrations of how each can be used to assess extent of implementation. Highlights from the four decades of development and use of each of these constructs are presented. Each of the constructs, Stages of Concern, Levels of Use and Innovation Configurations, is described along with review of the four decade story of its measurement development. Reference is made to selected studies. Implications of each construct for research, program evaluation and facilitating change processes are highlighted. The final section of the paper explores relationships between each construct. The conceptual explorations end with suggested implications for research, evaluation and practice. Throughout the author inserts short more personal anecdotes about the reasoning and experiences related to development and applications of each construct. The paper concludes with acknowledgement that other factors, especially leadership, are key to achieving implementation success. Design/methodology/approach: Introduction of three research-based constructs, Stages of Concern, Levels of Use and Innovation Configurations, their measures. Findings from selected studies are reviewed.

Findings: The three diagnostic dimensions of the Concerns Based Adoption Model have been applied with a wide range of education innovations, different contexts, and across nations and cultures. Research limitations/implications: Implementation needs to be determined through direct measurement. Practical implications: Extent of implementation needs to be determined directly in all treatment and comparison/control groups. Social implications: Without direct assessment of the extent of implementation the outputs and outcomes of new programs and innovations may not be determined.

Originality/value: The three Diagnostic Dimensions of the Concerns Based Adoption Model have been applied widely. The conceptual implications, especially when the three constructs are interconnected two at a time, offer important suggestions for future research and in program evaluations.

Key words
Change, Change management, Implementation, Evaluation, Leadership, School change, Schools.
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Hall, G.E. (2014). Evaluando los procesos de cambio. Midiendo el grado de implementación (constructos, métodos e implicaciones). REICE. Revista Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 12(4e), 99-130.
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Original version
This article has been originally published by Journal of Educational Administration, 2013, vol 51, n 3.

Translated by Nina Hidalgo Farran.