The main objective of the study is to identify the determinants of the decision to attend (or desert) secondary schools in rural areas in Peru. The study is based in information collected through surveys applied to adolescent students and deserters of rural areas living in towns with schools and without secondary schools in order to identify and estimate the effects of supply and demand side determinants on the decision to continue or not studying. Results show that the differences between students and school deserters are mainly associated to demand factors, that supply factors are not very important, and that there are no significant differences between the profile of the adolescents of towns with school and those living in towns without a secondary school. The adolescents’ decision to continue attending secondary school is mainly determined by their work status, academic performance, perception about quality of education supply, domestic work, gender and family situation (relations with parents, parents and children). In addition, according to the estimations, adolescents living in towns where secondary schools are not available have the same probability of attending school than their pairs from towns with schools.